Research & Legal

Our work is supported by a raft of scientific evidence from the world of Psychology. Please find BELOW ON THIS PAGE a short list of some of our key studies, books, journals and evidence. Much of the evidence used during our training courses can be found on this page.
A small selection of the research papers that inform our practice and our team are currently debating/researching into directly can be found above, feel free to download THE PDF VERSIONS.

All Inner Armour trainers adhere to the ICF code of coaching ethics and strongly recommend all participants and licensed Inner Armour Coaching® Methodology Licence holders do the same.
A copy is downloadable clicking on the logo here:

Inner Armour® are now embarking on the largest external study of the application of positive psychology coaching with police and military in history.
This research is being supervised by Professor Laurence Alison (BSc, MSc, PhD, C.PSychol) who, alongside his 137 published papers and books, provides training to FBI/CIA/DoD, The UKs National CT interviewing cadre and the British Army in the ORBIT framework for rapport-based interrogation methods.
Professor Alison and his team of experienced researchers will be externally gathering data and testing Inner Armour® across four countries resulting in published conclusive academic evidence at scale. Are the rumours true, can the Inner Armour® Coaching methodology really save 1000’s of lives? Is it all just hype? Inner Armour® is powerful and works. 

We are adding to our research library constantly and passionately encourage wider reading:

Key Texts
Alison, E & Alison, L.(2020) Rapport: The Four Ways To Read People. Vermilion. Penguin, Random House. UK.

Ivtzan, I, Lomas, T, Hefferon,K, Worth, P. (2015) Second Wave Positive Psychology – Embracing the Dark Side of Life. Routledge UK.


Abramson, L., Alloy, L., Hankin, B., Clements, C., Zhu, L., Hogan, M. and Whitehouse, W. (2000). Optimistic cognitive style and invulnerability to depression. In J. Gillham (ed.) The Science of Optimism and Hope (pp. 75 – 98). Philadelphia, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.

Aldrich, R., An Introduction to the History of Education, in Claxton, G. (2008) What’s the Point of School? (p37) UK: Oneworld Publications.

Algoe, S., Haidt, J., & Gable, S. (2008). Beyond reciprocity: Gratitude and relationships in everyday life. Journal of Emotion, Vol 8(3), pp. 425-429.

Andrews, R., & Torgerson.,J et al(2006). The effect of Grammar Teaching on writing development. British Educational Research Journal, 32 (1) pp. 39 – 55

Aronson, J., Fried, C., & Good, C. (2002). Reducing the effects of stereotype threat on African American college students by shaping theories of intelligence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, pp 113–125.

Balchin, T., et al (2008). The Routledge Companion to Gifted Education. London: Routledge.

Bandura, A., & Walters, R. (1963). Social Learning and Personality Development. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Bannerman, C., Soafer, J., & Watt, J. (2006). Creative Gliding Space in Navigating the unknown. Middlesex: University Press London.

Bartlett, M., & De Steno, D. (2006). Gratitude and Prosocial Behaviour, Helping when it costs you. Journal of Psychological Science. Boston MA. Vol. 17. No. 4 pp 319-325.

Baumeister, R., Bratslavsky, E., Finkenauer, C., & Vohs, K. (2001). Bad is stronger than good. Review of General Psychology, 5, pp323-370.

Baumeister, R.,et al (2003). Psychological Science in the Public interest, 4, (pp.1 – 44). In G, Claxton. (2008). What’s the point of school? UK: Oneworld Publications.

Baumeister, R., Campbell, J., Krueger, J., & Vohs, K., (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness or healthier lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(1).

Beare, H. (2006). How We envisage Schooling in the 21st Century. London:SSAT.

Beck, A. (1976). Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York: International Universities Press.

Becker, E. (1973). Denial of Death. New York: Free Press.

Ben-Shahar, Tal. (2007). Happier: Learn the secrets to daily Joy and Lasting Fulfillment. USA: MCGraw Hill Companies. pp 92- 143.

Berridge KC, Kringelbach ML (2008) Affective neuroscience of pleasure: reward in humans and animals. Psychopharm, 199(3):457-80.

Bergson, H. (1956). Laughter, Essay on Comedy, Doubleday and Company Inc. Wylie Sypher, P61.

Berry, D., & Broadbent, D. (1984). On the relationship between task performance and associated verbalized knowledge. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 36A, pp. 209 – 31.

Bettenson, H. (2003). The City of God, UK: Penguin.

Birney, R., Burdick, H., & Teevan, R. (1969). Fear of Failure. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Biswas-Diener,R. (2012). The Courage Quotient. San Fransisco:Jossey-Bass – A Wiley Imprint.

Blackmore, S. (1999). The Meme Machine. UK: Oxford University Press.

Blakemore, S., & Frith,U. (2005). The Learning Brain. USA: Blakewell Publishing.

Blackwell,L., Trzesniewski,K., & Dweck,C. (2007). Implicit theories of intelligence
predict achievement across an adolescent transition: A longitudinal study and intervention. Journal of Child Development, 78, pp 246–263.

Block, J.H., & Block, J. (1980). The role of ego-control and ego –resiliency in the organization of behaviour. In W.A. Collins (Ed), Minnesota symposia on child psychology (Vol. 13, pp. 39 – 101). Hillsdale, NJ:Erlbaum.

Blum ,J. (1978). Pseudoscience and mental ability: The Origins and Fallacies of the IQ controversy. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Boaler, J.(1997). When even the winners are losers: evaluating the experience of ‘top set’ students. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 29 (2) pp. 165-182.

Boniwell, I. (2006) Positive Psychology in a Nutshell, A Balanced introduction to the science of optimal functioning. UK: PWBC.

Bourdieu, P. (1992). Outline of a Theory of Practice, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Bowlby, J. (2005). A Secure Base: Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory, UK, USA & Canada: Routledge.

Brennan, D. and Wildflower, L. (2010). “Ethics in coaching” in Cox, Bachkirova and Clutterbuck (eds) The complete handbook of coaching. London: Sage.

Brickman , P., & Campbell, D. (1971). Hedonic relativism and planning the good society. In M. Appley (ed). Adaption-level Theory (pp 287–305). New York: Academic Press.

Brickamn, P., Coates, D., & Janoff –Bulman, R. (1978). Lottery winners and accident victims: Is happiness relative?  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, pp. 917–927.

Brighouse, T. (2006). Essential pieces, the jigsaw of a successful school, UK: Research Machines plc.

Brighouse, T., (2006). How successful head teachers survive and thrive, Four phases of headship, Five uses of time, Six essential tasks and seven ways to hold onto your sanity. UK: Research Machines plc. Copyright Tim Brighouse.

Briner, R., & Dewberry, C. (2007). Staff well being is key to school success. UK: Department.

Bristow, M., Ireson, G., & Coleman,A. (2007). A life in the day of a head teacher, A study of practice and well-being. The Practitioner Report, UK: National college for school leadership.

Bronson, P. (2007). How not to talk to your kids. USA: New York Magazine, 20/02/2007.

Brown, B. (2007) I Thought It Was Just Me (but it isn’t): Telling the Truth About Perfectionism, inadequacy and Power. New York: Penguin/Gotham books.

Brown, B. (2010). The Gift Of imperfection – Let Go Of Who You’re Supposed To Be And Embrace Who You Are. USA. Hazeldon.

Burgdorf  J, Panksepp J (2006) The neurobiology of positive emotions. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30: 173–187.

Burton, N., (2010) The Art of Failure, The Anti Self Help Guide, UK: Acheron Press.

Buss, D. (2000). The Evolution Of Happiness. American Psychologist 55: pp.15–23.

Cameron, K,. Dutton, J., and Quinn, R. (Eds). (2003). Positive Organizational Scholarship: Foundations of a New Discipline. San Fransisco: Berrett – Koehler.

Cameron, K., Bright, D., and Caza, A. (2004). Exploring the relationships between organizational virtuousness and performance. American Behavioural Scientist. 47 (6) : 766 – 790

Carr, A., & Wilde, G. (1988). Effects of actual and potential stressor control on physiological and self- reported stress responses. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 6 (3 / 4): pp. 371-87.

Carr, A. (2004). Positive Psychology: The science of happiness and Human strengths. USA, UK & Canada: Routledge.

Carr, M. (2000). Assessment in Early Childhood Settings: Learning Stories. London: Paul Chapman.

Carver, C.S., & Scheier, M. (2002). Three human strengths. In L. Aspinwall & U. Staudinger (Eds), A psychology of human strengths (pp. 87 – 102). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Charney DS (2004) Psychobiological mechanisms of resilience and vulnerability: implications for successful adaptation to extreme stress. Am J Psychiatry, 161:195–216).

Clark, A., & Karmiloff–Smith, A.(1993). 8, (4) The cognizer’s innards: a psychological and philosophical perspective on the development of thought. Mind and Language, pp. 487–519.

Claxton, G. (2008). What’s the Point of School? UK: Oneworld Publications.

Clifton, D.O., & Harter, J.K. (2003). Investing in Strengths. In A. K.S. Cameron, B. J.E. Dutton, & C. R.E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive Organizational Scholarship (pp. 111-121). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc

Clifton, D., & Nelson, P. (1992). Soar With Your Strengths. New York. Dell.

Coffield, F,. Moseley, D et al (2004). Learning styles and pedagogy in post 16 learning: a systematic and critical review. UK: Learning and Skills Research Centre.

Cole, D., Maxwell, S., & Martin, J.(1997). Reflected self-appraisals: Strength and structure of the relation of teacher, peer, and parent ratings to children’s self-perceived competencies. Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol 89(1), pp. 55-70.

Collishaw, S., Maughan, B., Goodman, R., & Pickles, A. (2004). Time trends in adolescent mental health. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 45 (8). pp. 1350–62.

Connors, J., Maisto, S. and Zywiak (1998). Male and Female Alcoholics, Attributions Regarding the Onset and Termination of Relapses and the Maintenance of Abstinence. Journal of Substance Abuse, 10. No. 1 27 – 42.

Costa, A., & Kallick, B. (2000). Discovering and Exploring Habits of Mind. Vancouver: Association for supervision and Curriculum Development.

Covington, M. (1992). Making the Grade: A self-worth perspective on motivation and school reform. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Covington, M., & Amelich, C. (1979). Effort: The double-edged sword in school achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, pp. 169–182.

Craig, C. (2007). The potential dangers of a systematic, explicit approach to teaching social and emotional skills (SEAL). Centre for Confidence and Well Being.

Craig, C. (2009). Lecture at The University Of East London.

Crooker, J., & Park, L. (2004). The Costly Pursuit of Self Esteem. Psychological Bulletin. 130: pp. 392–414.

Csikszentmihayli, M.(1992). Flow – The classic work on how to achieve happiness USA: Harper and Row.

Dawkins, R. (1996). The Selfish Gene. UK: Oxford University Press.

Deakin- Crick, R., Broadfoot, P., & Claxton, G. (2004). Developing an effective lifelong learning inventory: The ELLI Project. Assessment in Education. 11 (3), pp. 247-72.

Department for Education and Skills. (2007). Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning for Secondary Schools (SEAL): Guidance booklet.

Department for Children, Schools and Families. (2008). SFR 10/2008.School
workforce in England.

Delle Fave, A., & Massimini, F. (2003). Optimal experience in work and leisure among teachers and physicians: individual and bio-cultural implications. Leisure Studies, 22, pp 323-342.

Dewey, J. (1933). How we think. Boston, D. C.: Heath & Co.

Diener, E. (2003). What is positive about positive psychology: the Curmudgeon and Pollyana. Journal of Psychological Inquiry, 14, 115 – 120, p 117.

Diener, M.L., & Lucas, R. E. (2004). Adults’ desires for children’s emotions across 48 countries: Associations with individual and national characteristics. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35(5), 525 -547

Dillon, J. (1990). The Practice of Questioning. London:Routledge.

Drugan, R. (2000). The neurochemistry of stress resilience and coping: a quest for natures own antidote to illness. In J. Gillham (ed). The Science of Optimism and Hope (pp. 57 – 71). Philadelphia, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.

Duckworth, A., & Seligmann, M.(2005). Self-Discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Journal of Psychological Science. 16 (12), pp. 939–44.

Dunn, J.,& Schweitzer, M. (2005). Feeling and Believing: The Influence of Emotion on Trust. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol 88(5). pp. 736-748.

Dweck, C. (1999). Self theories: Their role in Motivation, Personality and Development. London: Psychology Press.

Dweck, C. (2007). Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. New York: Ballantine Books.

Dweck, C. (2010). Mindsets and equitable education. Principal leadership,

Ehrenreich, B. (2009). Brightsided: How The Relentless Promotion of Positive Thinking Has Undermined America. New York: Metropolitan Books.

Elliot, A., & Dweck, C.(2005). Handbook of Competence and Motivation. New York: Guildford Press.

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Entwistle, N. (1990). Styles of Learning and Teaching. New York: Beekman Books.

Festinger, L. (1957). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance.USA: Stanford University Press.

Fitzpatrick, D., In R, Jones (1995). Smart brains: neuroscientists explain the mystery of what makes us human. American School Board Journal, 182 (11), pp. 22 – 26.

Fowers, B. J. (2005). Virtue and psychology: Pursuing excellence in ordinary practices. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Friedrick, S., & Lowenstein, G. (1999). Hedonic adaptation. In E Kahneman, E. Diener and N. Scwartz (eds), Well-being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology. (pp. 302 – 29). New York: Russel Sage Foundation.

Fredrickson, B., & Losada, M. (2005). Positive affect and the complex dynamics of human flourishing. American Psychologist, 60, pp 678 -686.

Frome, P., & Eccles, J. (1998). Parents influence on children’s achievement-related perceptions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 74, pp. 435 – 52.

Gardener, H. (1983/1993). Frames of Mind: Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

Gardener, H. ( 2000). Intelligence Reframed: Multiple intelligence’s for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books.

Garmezy, N. (1991). Resilience in children’s adaptation to negative life events and stressed environments. Pediatric Annals, 20, 459 – 466.

Gerhardt, S. (2010). The Selfish Society: How we all forgot to love oneanother and made money instead. UK: Simon and Schuster ltd.

Gibbs, N. (1995). The EQ factor: new brain research suggests that emotions, not IQ, may be the true measure of human intelligence. USA:Time Magazine.

Gilbert, J. (2005). Catching the Knowledge Wave? The Knowledge Society and the Future of Education. Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research Press.

Gillham, J.(2000). The Science of Optimism and Hope. Philadelphia, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.

Good,C.,Aronson,J.,&Inzlicht,M.(2003).Improving adolescents’ standardized test performance: An intervention to reduce the effects of stereotype threat. Applied Developmental Psychology, 24, pp 645–662.

Goleman, D. (1996). Emotional Intelligence: Why it can Matter More than IQ. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Gough, H. (1991). Scales and Combinations of Scales: What do they tell us and what do they mean? Paper presented at the 99th Annual convention of the American Psychological Assocation, San Fransisco, August 1991, Data obtained by Twenge, J,. in 2001.

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Gray, J.R., Braver, T.S., & Raichle , M.E.(2002). Integration of emotion and cognition in the lateral prefrontal cortex. PNAS, 99(6), 4115 – 4120.

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Greene, R.R. (2003). Resilience theory: theoretical and professional conceptualizations. Journal of Human Behaviour in the Social Environment, 8 (4), 75 – 91.

Haidt, J.(2006). The Happiness Hypothesis. USA: Basic Books.

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A more recent exposition can be found in; Spitzer, M. (1999). The Mind Within the Net, Cambridge MA: MIT Press.

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Joseph, S,. & Linley,P. (2005). Positive Adjustment to Threatening Events: An Organismic Valuing Theory of Growth Through Adversity; Review of General Psychology, Vol 9(3), pp. 262-280.

Joseph, S., & Linley, P. A. (2005). Positive Adjustment to Threatening Events: An Organismic Valuing Theory of Growth Through Adversity. Review of General Psychology, 9(3), 262-280.

Joseph, S,. & Linley, P. (2005). The Human Capacity for Growth Through Adversity: American Psychologist, Vol 60(3), pp. 262-264.

Joseph, S., & Linely, A. (2008). Trauma, Recovery and Growth, Positive psychological perspectives on post traumatic stress. UK:John Wiley and sons.

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Kringelbach ML, Berridge KC (2009) Pleasures of the Brain (Series in Affective Science). OUP

Kringelbach ML, Berridge KC (2009) Towards a functional neuroanatomy of pleasure and happiness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(11): 479-87.

Kringelbach ML, Berridge KC (2010) The functional neuroanatomy of pleasure and happiness. Discovery Medicine, 9(49): 579-87. This is a slightly re-edited version of the above paper for this online journal:

Kumar, S., & Jagacinski, C. (2006). Imposters have goals too: the imposter phenomenon and its relationship to achievement goal theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, pp. 147–157.

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